Application Note 010: Use of diffusive samplers with TD–GC analysis for monitoring VOCs in ambient air
This Application Note reviews indoor and outdoor air monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using tube-type diffusive samplers and thermal desorption (TD)–GC analysis. Specific attention is paid to general sampling/analytical procedures, concentration/detection limits, applicable analyte ranges, minimising artefacts, quality assurance and method limitations.
Application Note 015: On-line process control of speciated organic chemicals in industrial gases at sub-ppb levels
This Application Note describes validation of an on-line thermal desorption–mass spectrometry (TD–MS) system for rapid measurement of sub-ppb levels of VOCs in industrial carbon dioxide. The combination of on-line TD with process MS allows the high-throughput, near-real-time measurement of trace-level VOCs, an approach that could be valuable for the the detection of hydrocarbon contaminants and volatile fermentation byproducts in streams of industrial gases.
Application Note 016: Round-the-clock, on-line and cryogen-free monitoring of hydrocarbons from acetylene to trimethylbenzene in ambient air
This Application Note describes a semi-continuous on-line thermal desorption system for monitoring of a complex mix of volatile and very volatile hydrocarbons (‘ozone precursors’) in air. The reliability and reproducibility of the system are examined, and based on signal-to-noise ratios, detection limits were found to be below 0.1 ppb. Finally, the system was tested by using it to sample forested semi-rural air subject to high levels of weekday traffic.
Application Note 028: Optimising analytical performance and extending the application range of thermal desorption for monitoring air indoors and inside vehicle cabins
This Application Note describes considerations relating to analyte retention efficiency, desorption efficiency, artefacts, band broadening and analyte/system stability during the development and validation of thermal desorption procedures. Examples of optimum method performance in terms of precision, linearity and sensitivity are presented.
Application Note 029: VOC air monitoring technology and its application to contaminated land
This Application Note summarises how the development of soil probe technology allows sorbent-tube-based sampling technology to be used to monitor volatile organic compounds in contaminated land. Examples include landfill sites and soil in the region of a chemical plant.
Application Note 033: Analysis of the interior atmosphere of a passenger car by TD–GC–MS
This Application Note describes the use of pumped sampling, thermal desorption (TD) and GC–MS for the analysis of potentially harmful volatile organic compounds in the air of two recently acquired ‘compact’ passenger cars. The method allows a wide range of compounds can be screened, and permits comparison between different models, allowing information to be obtained about the source of individual components.
Application Note 037: Workplace air monitoring using pumped sampling onto sorbent tubes and analysis by TD–GC–MS
This Application Note demonstrates the sensitivity of thermal desorption (TD) and GC–MS analysis for the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in factory and fenceline air, using pumped sampling onto sorbent tubes.
Application Note 038: Occupational exposure limit levels for VOCs compatible with TD–GC–MS
This Application Note tabulates those chemicals with ‘standard’ occupational exposure limits at or below 10 ppm that are compatible with analysis by thermal desorption (TD)–GC. It also provides information on sorbents, sampling methods and safe sampling volumes (SSVs).
Application Note 043: Quantitative monitoring of monoethylene glycol (MEG) by TD–GC
This Application Note demonstrates that thermal desorption (TD–GC) can be used to analyse a monoethylene glycol standard with excellent linearity, making it a suitable method for detecting vapour of this additive in natural gas.
Application Note 047: Rapid and reliable screening of landfill gas for priority and odorous compounds by TD–GC–MS
This Application Note describes the use of sorbent tubes to sample landfill gas, with analysis by thermal desorption (TD) and GC–MS detection. In particular, we describe the use of optimised sampling and analytical conditions for the detection of toxic and priority VOCs, and for effective water management. Combined with automated detection of target compounds using library-matching TargetView software, this approach offers the ability to greatly speed up the screening of complex landfill gas profiles.
Application Note 049: Diffusive (passive) monitoring and TD–GC analysis of hazardous air pollutants in industrial and urban locations
This Application Note describes the monitoring of benzene and other vapour-phase organic compounds in urban or industrial air using diffusive (passive) sampling onto sorbent tubes with subsequent analysis by thermal desorption (TD) with gas chromatography (GC). It summarises how this robust and cost-effective air monitoring technique should be applied to monitoring airborne VOCs around the perimeter of oil refineries and other industrial facilities. Topics covered include advice on sorbent selection, determination of uptake rates, deployment of samplers, method sensitivity and application/interpretation
Application Note 077: Using thermal desorption for industrial (stack) emissions testing
This Application Note covers selection of the appropriate organic vapour sampler for the analytes of interest in stack gas sampling, and optimisation of the subsequent sampling and thermal desorption (TD)–GC analytical process. Also discussed are the benefits of thermal desorption against solvent extraction.
Application Note 079: Air monitoring – The advantages and applications of canisters and tubes
This Application Note discusses the application areas of canister-based and sorbent-tube-based sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and the advantages and limitations of each approach.
Application Note 080: Evaluation of a ‘soil gas’ sorbent tube for improving the measurement of volatile and semi-volatile fuel vapours in contaminated land
This Application Note describes the development of a two-bed sorbent tube in conjunction with Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor for the sampling of petroleum vapours collected from soil gas. Both lighter and heavier (polyaromatic, longer-chain) hydrocarbons were detected, and quantitative recovery is demonstrated for even the heaviest fuel components.
Application Note 081: Innovative cryogen-free ambient air monitoring in compliance with US EPA Method TO-15
This Application Note describes the GC–MS analysis of humidified canister ‘air toxics’ samples at various relative humidities, using cryogen-free systems for thermal desorption preconcentration. Detection of 65 target compounds ranging in volatility from propene to naphthalene is demonstrated with excellent peak shape and performance well within the criteria set out in US EPA Method TO-15, including method detection limits as low as 4 pptv.
Application Note 086: Monitoring ‘air toxics’ in ambient air using sorbent tubes by automated, cryogen-free thermal desorption in accordance with US EPA Method TO-17
This Application Note demonstrates the fundamental sensitivity of Markes’ ULTRA-UNITY system for the analysis of TO-17 ‘air toxics’ ranging in volatility from methyl chloride to hexachlorobutadiene. Also highlighted is the ability of Markes’ ClearView background-compensation software to improve signal-to-noise ratios and enhance spectral purity for trace-level compounds.
Application Note 087: Monitoring trace greenhouse gases in air using cryogen-free TD–GC–MS
This Application Note shows how Markes’ thermal desorption (TD) technology for analysing ‘air toxics’ can also be applied to the detection of the most challenging ultra-volatile greenhouse gases, including tetrafluoromethane, hexafluoroethane, sulfur hexafluoride and nitrous oxide. Detection limits below 1 ppt are demonstrated for sulfur hexafluoride and hexafluoroethane, with excellent peak shape and linearity also being obtained.
Application Note 097: Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from vehicle exhaust using TD–GC–MS
This Application Note describes how thermal desorption (TD), in conjunction with GC–MS, can be used to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vehicle exhaust.
Application Note 099: Using the CIA Advantage for automated cryogen-free analysis of canister air and gas
This Application Note describes five applications of Markes’ CIA Advantage™ to analyse VOCs in air and gas sampled using canisters. The sampling options available, combined with the ability to split sample flows, means that CIA Advantage systems can accommodate component concentrations ranging from ppt to low-percent levels, while avoiding need for cryogenic cooling.
Application Note 106: Continuous on-line monitoring of hazardous air pollutants by TD–GC–FID
This Application Note shows how the TT24-7™ Series 2 thermal desorber can be used for the continuous on-line detection of hazardous air pollutants, and how the time profiles and concentration data obtained can be of value for source apportionment.
Application Note 114: Passive monitoring of benzene and other hazardous air pollutants at refinery perimeters in accordance with US EPA Method 325
This Application Note describes a stepwise approach to complying with US EPA Method 325 for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at refinery perimeters. A range of equipment from Markes International is outlined that allows fully method-compliant deployment of tube-based passive samplers, sample analysis and tube cleaning. All these stages are underpinned by a radio-frequency identification tagging system to ensure a robust chain of custody from field to lab.
Application Note 115: Simple and reliable quantitation of ppt-level PAHs in air by TD–GC–MS
This Application Note describes the performance of a sorbent tube and optimised analytical protocol dedicated to the detection of ppt-level polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. Using active (pumped) sampling with analysis by thermal desorption–gas chromatography (TD–GC), this innovative approach completely avoids the labour-intensive solvent-extraction protocol employed in many standardised methods. The optimised analytical method also offers increased sensitivity due to increased extraction efficiency, absence of a dilution stage, and efficient transfer of compounds to the GC.
Application Note 119: Highly efficient monitoring of VOCs in stack emissions using sorbent tubes analysed by TD–GC–MS in accordance with European standard method CEN/TS 13649
This Application Note demonstrates that Markes International’s automated thermal desorption systems offer excellent results for monitoring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stationary source emissions in accordance with the updated version of the European standard method CEN/TS 13649 released in 2014. The value of repeat analysis for method development and result verification is also demonstrated.
Application Note 128: Extending the analysis of ozone precursors – Continuous, unattended, cryogen-free on-line monitoring of PAMS hydrocarbons and polar VOCs in ambient air by TD–GC–MS
This Application Note describes validation of a cryogen-free thermal desorption (TD)–GC–MS system for on-line monitoring of an extended range of very volatile species in ambient air, which includes ‘ozone precursors’ (as specified by the US PAMS program), polar compounds and monoterpenes. In addition to analysis of a 61-component standard mix and a real air sample, we demonstrate low method detection limits using the new trap-based Kori-xr system for eliminating water from the air stream.