Application Note 009: Monitoring materials and processes for VOCs at high and trace levels
This Application Note shows examples that demonstrate the considerable savings of labour and cost that can be achieved using thermal desorption to analyse VOCs emitted from materials, including polymers, foods, pharmaceuticals and construction products.
Application Note 040: Direct desorption of VOCs and SVOCs from leather furnishings
This Application Note demonstrates the advantages of direct desorption and thermal desorption for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) in leather furnishings. In the example discussed, the cause of leather discoloration was associated with nitrogen-containing chemicals, substituted phenols and long-chain fatty acids in the natural oils present.
Application Note 041: Analysis of the residual solvent dimethyl sulfoxide in a drug precursor
This Application Note describes the development of a direct thermal desorption method to analyse residual dimethyl sulfoxide in a drug precursor. An excellent recovery is demonstrated, with less than 3% carryover upon repeat desorption of the same sample.
Application Note 055: Using the FLEC to determine emissions of VOCs from materials and products
This Application Note describes the principles behind use of the Field & Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC®) for material emissions testing according to standard methods.
Application Note 056: TD–GC–MS analysis of VOCs for material emissions testing
This Application Note describes thermal desorption (TD)–GC–MS method for identifying and quantifying the masses of individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into a flow of air from products/materials and collected on sorbent sampling tubes during emissions testing. It also provides a method of estimating the level of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in terms of toluene equivalents.
Application Note 057: Characterisation of paint by direct desorption TD–GC–MS
This Application Note demonstrates how direct desorption of both dry and wet paint samples, with analysis by thermal desorption (TD)–GC–MS, can be used as a quantitative analytical technique for determination of the VOC content. Minimal sample preparation is required, and complete recovery of all analytes was obtained
Application Note 059: Direct desorption of car trim materials for VOC and SVOC analysis in accordance with VDA Method 278
This Application Note demonstrates the suitability of Markes’ thermal desorption systems for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) in three types of automotive trim materials (polypropylene, artificial leather and foam) in accordance with VDA Method 278.
Application Note 062: Material emissions testing in the semiconductor and electronics industries
This Application Note demonstrates the suitability of thermal desorption (TD) technologies to detect emissions from materials in industries employing cleanroom facilities. The benefits are exemplified using direct desorption from a PVC foam sheet and dried paint flakes, followed by TD–GC–MS, and purge-and-trap sampling from a hard-drive motor, again followed by TD–GC–MS.
Application Note 065: Automating measurement of VOCs and SVOCs in materials using direct thermal desorption
This Application Note demonstrates the application of direct thermal desorption for measurement of residual volatiles in materials used in car trim and consumer products. Four examples are discussed – PVC foam, polyurethane-based artificial leather, real leather and water-based paint samples (both dried and liquid).
Application Note 067: Introducing the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor for rapid emissions screening of products and materials
This Application Note describes the underlying principles of Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, provides evidence for its performance, and illustrates its applicability with three real-life examples – printed circuit boards, oil-based paint on wood composite, and car trim materials.
Application Note 068: Using Markes’ emissions screening technology to simplify compliance with construction product regulations
This Application Note summarises recent regulatory changes regarding chemical emissions from construction products and materials used indoors in Europe, the US and elsewhere. An overview is provided of the likely impact on industry, along with technical developments that should help to minimise the burden and maximise the opportunity for affected trades.
Application Note 069: Correlation of emission rates determined using the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor with those for conventional emission-chamber tests
This Application Note shows that there is excellent correlation between emission tests on a sample of PVC wall covering obtained with Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor and those from a conventional emission chamber. This confirms the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor as an ideal tool for the rapid evaluation of emissions from materials during routine quality control and as part of product development.
Application Note 070: Material emissions testing using the FLEC: Testing recovery and sink effects
This Application Note briefly describes the use of the FLEC® test kit to determine the efficiency of recovery of a sample standard, for compliance with Method PrENV 13419 on determination of the emission of VOCs from building products
Application Note 071: Summary of FLEC applications
This Application Note provides a bibliography for the Field and Laboratory Emissions Cell (FLEC), with listings of materials studies and analytes detected.
Application Note 072: An introduction to emission cells and comparison to small chambers for material emissions testing
This Application Note compares emission cells such as the FLEC® with small chambers for the analysis of chemical releases from planar materials.
Application Note 073: The performance of Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor for low-cost, fast and meaningful material emissions screening
This Application Note introduces the results of a detailed study published in Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry by T. Schripp et al. (Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institute (WKI), Braunschweig, Germany). The study confirms the correlation between conventional emission test methods and the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor™, at various temperatures, air change rates and sample conditioning times. The paper also reports several fundamental performance characteristics of the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, including flow stability, ease of use and reproducibility.
Application Note 074: The suitability of emission cells for emissions testing and a comparison with small chambers
This Application Note introduces the results of a study published in Reinhaltung der Luft by T. Schripp et al. (Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institute (WKI), Braunschweig, Germany). The paper describes the FLEC® emission cell and the principles behind the relevant emission models, and goes on to conclude that the correlation between emission test data from chambers and cells is generally satisfactory.
Application Note 089: Thermal desorption technology for testing chemical emissions from construction products and consumer goods
This Application Note describes the various features of thermal desorption (and Markes’ technology in particular) that make it suitable for testing emissions of potentially hazardous chemicals from construction products and consumer goods.
Application Note 090: Automated detection of trace target compounds in complex emission profiles from products and materials
This Application Note shows how TargetView compound-identification software greatly speeds up the process of identifying trace-level target compounds in complex emission profiles from consumer products and construction materials. Examples chosen are plasterboard, a child’s plastic toy, and mahogany.
Application Note 093: Rapid microchamber tests for screening chemical emissions from car trim in accordance with ISO 12219-3
This Application Note demonstrates the efficiency and reliability of Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor to rapidly assess emissions of residual monomer from polymeric car-trim components in accordance with ISO 12219-3.
Application Note 103: Enhancing the development of low-emitting products and materials
This Application Note describes how sampling technologies for thermal desorption that are typically used by test laboratories for screening products for chemical emissions can also provide manufacturers with tools that greatly aid the development of low-emitting products and materials, and thus compete in the expanding market for ‘green’ products.
Application Note 110: Rapid detection of chemicals emitted from museum display cases
This Application Note discusses assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from the materials used in the manufacture of museum display cases, which can have a detrimental impact upon the condition of the artefacts within them. We describe how sampling devices such as Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, used in conjunction with analysis by thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) can allow rapid and convenient sampling of such chemicals from the wide range of construction materials used in these cases, and how new test schemes are being used by industry to certify these materials.
Application Note 113: Extending the compatible analyte volatility range for indoor air quality and material emissions testing using multi-bed sorbent tubes
This Application Note summarises two important and independent studies aimed at extending the compatible analyte range of tests used to determine chemicals released from materials, and associated indoor air quality measurements. The papers compare the performance of single-bed Tenax TA tubes to those packed with multiple sorbents, and demonstrate how the latter guarantee improved recovery of very volatile compounds without compromising the recovery or stability of heavier target analytes.
Application Note 121: A simple and reliable approach to assessing permeation of volatiles through materials
This Application Note describes the operation of the permeation accessory for Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, and shows how it can be used for investigations into the permeation of volatile chemicals through thin membranes.