Application Note 009: Monitoring materials and processes for VOCs at high and trace levels
This Application Note shows examples that demonstrate the considerable savings of labour and cost that can be achieved using thermal desorption to analyse VOCs emitted from materials, including polymers, foods, pharmaceuticals and construction products.
Application Note 040: Direct desorption of VOCs and SVOCs from leather furnishings
This Application Note demonstrates the advantages of direct desorption and thermal desorption for the analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) in leather furnishings. In the example discussed, the cause of leather discoloration was associated with nitrogen-containing chemicals, substituted phenols and long-chain fatty acids in the natural oils present.
Application Note 041: Analysis of the residual solvent dimethyl sulfoxide in a drug precursor
This Application Note describes the development of a direct thermal desorption method to analyse residual dimethyl sulfoxide in a drug precursor. An excellent recovery is demonstrated, with less than 3% carryover upon repeat desorption of the same sample.
Application Note 055: Using the FLEC to determine emissions of VOCs from materials and products
This Application Note describes the principles behind use of the Field & Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC®) for material emissions testing according to standard methods.
Application Note 057: Characterisation of paint by direct desorption TD–GC–MS
This Application Note demonstrates how direct desorption of both dry and wet paint samples, with analysis by thermal desorption (TD)–GC–MS, can be used as a quantitative analytical technique for determination of the VOC content. Minimal sample preparation is required, and complete recovery of all analytes was obtained
Application Note 059: Direct desorption of car trim materials for VOC and SVOC analysis in accordance with VDA Method 278
This Application Note demonstrates the suitability of Markes’ thermal desorption systems for analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) in three types of automotive trim materials (polypropylene, artificial leather and foam) in accordance with VDA Method 278.
Application Note 062: Material emissions testing in the semiconductor and electronics industries
This Application Note demonstrates the suitability of thermal desorption (TD) technologies to detect emissions from materials in industries employing cleanroom facilities. The benefits are exemplified using direct desorption from a PVC foam sheet and dried paint flakes, followed by TD–GC–MS, and purge-and-trap sampling from a hard-drive motor, again followed by TD–GC–MS.
Application Note 065: Automating measurement of VOCs and SVOCs in materials using direct thermal desorption–GC–MS
The application of direct thermal desorption for measurement of residual volatiles in materials used in car trim and consumer products is demonstrated using four examples – PVC foam, polyurethane-based artificial leather, real leather and water-based paint samples (both dried and liquid).
Application Note 067: An introduction to microchamber sampling for rapid screening of chemical emissions from construction materials and consumer products
This Application Note describes how volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) from products and materials can be rapidly sampled onto sorbent tubes using Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (µ-CTE). Its modes of operation are described, evidence is presented for its performance, and the benefits for routine laboratory screening are explained.
Application Note 068: The development of construction product regulations relating to chemical emissions and how to comply with them
This Application Note describes recent regulatory developments controlling the release of volatile and semi-volatile organic chemicals (VOCs and SVOCs) from a wide range of construction products and materials exposed to indoor air. It also discusses the sampling and analytical technology available for measuring chemical emissions and how this equipment can be used to minimise the regulatory test burden and aid development of new, low-emission products.
Application Note 069: Correlation of emission rates determined using the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor with those for conventional emissions-chamber tests
In this Application Note we show that there is excellent correlation between emission tests on a sample of PVC wall covering obtained with Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (µ-CTE) and those from a conventional emissions chamber. This confirms the µ-CTE as an ideal tool for the rapid evaluation of emissions from materials during routine quality control and as part of product development.
Application Note 070: Material emissions testing using the FLEC: Testing recovery and sink effects
This Application Note briefly describes the use of the FLEC® test kit to determine the efficiency of recovery of a sample standard, for compliance with Method PrENV 13419 on determination of the emission of VOCs from building products
Application Note 071: Summary of FLEC applications
This Application Note provides a bibliography for the Field and Laboratory Emissions Cell (FLEC), with listings of materials studies and analytes detected.
Application Note 072: An introduction to emission cells and comparison to small chambers for material emissions testing
This Application Note compares emission cells such as the FLEC® with small chambers for the analysis of chemical releases from planar materials.
Application Note 073: The performance of a microchamber device for screening chemical emissions from indoor construction products
This Application Note introduces the results of a detailed study published in Analytical & Bioanalytical Chemistry by T. Schripp et al. (Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institute (WKI), Braunschweig, Germany). The study confirms the correlation between conventional emission test methods and the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, at various temperatures, air change rates and sample conditioning times. The paper also reports several fundamental performance characteristics of the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, including flow stability, ease of use and reproducibility.
Application Note 074: The suitability of emission cells for emissions testing and a comparison with small chambers
This Application Note introduces the results of a study published in Reinhaltung der Luft by T. Schripp et al. (Fraunhofer Wilhelm-Klauditz-Institute (WKI), Braunschweig, Germany). The paper describes the FLEC® emission cell and the principles behind the relevant emission models, and goes on to conclude that the correlation between emission test data from chambers and cells is generally satisfactory.
Application Note 089: An introduction to the use of thermal desorption for testing chemical emissions from construction materials and consumer products
This Application Note describes the various features of thermal desorption (and Markes’ technology in particular) that make it suitable for testing emissions of potentially hazardous chemicals from construction materials and consumer products.
Application Note 090: Automated detection of trace target compounds in complex emission profiles from products and materials
This Application Note shows how TargetView compound-identification software greatly speeds up the process of identifying trace-level target compounds in complex emission profiles from consumer products and construction materials. Examples chosen are plasterboard, a child’s plastic toy, and mahogany.
Application Note 093: Rapid microchamber tests for screening chemical emissions from car trim in accordance with ISO 12219-3
This Application Note demonstrates the efficiency and reliability of Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor to rapidly assess emissions of residual monomer from polymeric car-trim components in accordance with ISO 12219-3.
Application Note 103: Enhancing the development of low-emitting products and materials using microchamber or direct desorption sampling, with TD–GC–MS analysis
This Application Note describes how sampling techniques for thermal desorption (TD) can be used to assist the development of low-emitting materials used in building construction and domestic fittings. As an example, emissions of VOCs and SVOCs from adhesives, flooring materials and a glazing spacer are sampled using either the Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor or direct desorption, and then analysed by TD–GC–MS. We show how the resulting data is useful for comparing emissions between products, assessing the effect of manufacturing processes, and troubleshooting problems arising during manufacture.
Application Note 110: Rapid detection of chemicals emitted from museum display cases
This Application Note discusses assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from the materials used in the manufacture of museum display cases, which can have a detrimental impact upon the condition of the artefacts within them. We describe how sampling devices such as Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, used in conjunction with analysis by thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD–GC–MS) can allow rapid and convenient sampling of such chemicals from the wide range of construction materials used in these cases, and how new test schemes are being used by industry to certify these materials.
Application Note 113: Extending the compatible analyte volatility range for indoor air quality and material emissions testing using multi-bed sorbent tubes
This Application Note summarises two important and independent studies aimed at extending the compatible analyte range of tests used to determine chemicals released from materials, and associated indoor air quality measurements. The papers compare the performance of single-bed Tenax TA tubes to those packed with multiple sorbents, and demonstrate how the latter guarantee improved recovery of very volatile compounds without compromising the recovery or stability of heavier target analytes.
Application Note 121: A simple and reliable approach to assessing permeation of volatiles through materials
This Application Note describes the operation of the permeation accessory for Markes’ Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor, and shows how it can be used for investigations into the permeation of volatile chemicals through thin membranes.
Application Note 130: Microchamber sampling and TD–GC–MS analysis of chemical emissions from spray polyurethane foam (SPF) in accordance with ASTM standard WK40293
This Application Note describes the use of Markes’ high-temperature Micro-Chamber/Thermal Extractor (µ-CTE), followed by thermal desorption–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (TD–GC–MS), to analyse potentially hazardous volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) emitted from spray polyurethane foam (SPF), in accordance with the forthcoming ASTM standard WK40293.
Application Note 131: The development of standard methods relating to vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ) and how to comply with them
This Application Note discusses the introduction of regulations limiting the quantities of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs) allowed in vehicle cabin air, and describes the evolution of harmonised, globally-applicable standard methods for sampling and measuring them. The key technologies used for sampling and analysis in this area are also briefly described.