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VOCs in the news

Tuesday, 16 September 2014 at 4:26:PM

As part of our regular sweep of news items in the analytical sciences, we often come across instances where volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the focus of attention. We thought it might be useful and interesting to bring these together in a regular round-up – so here’s the first!

David Barden

VOCs used to profile bacteria

VOCs emitted by cultures of ten strains of the diarrhoea-causing bacterium Clostridium difficile have been profiled using a custom-built headspace–TOF MS setup. Paul Monk and colleagues at the University of Leicester, UK, identified 69 VOCs and used them to distinguish between the strains – methanol, p-cresol, dimethylamine, ethylene sulfide, dimethyl sulfide and methyl thioacetate were most of value. The authors say that their method “may have utility as a rapid means of identifying C. difficile infection”.

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The case for phthalates as endocrine disruptors strengthens

The case for phthalates being endocrine disruptors has been further bolstered by research carried out by John Meeker and Kelly Ferguson at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. They used HPLC–MS–MS to assess urinary levels of 13 phthalate metabolites – primarily oxygenated and singly-hydrolysed derivatives of phthalate esters. Significant reductions of testosterone were found in both men and women of different ages. Notably, substantial increases in metabolites of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (dioctyl phthalate) in 6–12-year-old boys were associated with a 29% drop in testosterone.

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Apple tightens regulations on hazardous solvents

Benzene and n-hexane have been banned from use as cleaning agents and degreasers in the final assembly process at 22 of Apple’s iPhone and iPad production plants. Their new Regulated Substances Specification additionally stipulates that “All cleaning agents and degreasers used at final assembly process facilities for the manufacturing of Apple products shall be tested for benzene, n-hexane and chlorinated organic solvent content at a certified lab prior to use in production”, and that permitted levels in the breathing zone of workers must be <100 mg/m3 (28 ppm) for n-hexane, and <0.32 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) for benzene.

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US National Academy of Sciences concludes that formaldehyde causes cancer

The long-running debate in the US over whether formaldehyde is carcinogenic took moved forward in August with the publication of a report by the US National Academy of Sciences (NAS), where they conclude that the answer is “yes it is”.

This follows their critical 2011 review of the US EPA’s draft assessment of formaldehyde. Although the EPA document said that the evidence is “sufficient to conclude a causal association” between formaldehyde exposure and a variety of cancers, the NAS review said that there were “recurring methodologic problems” in this study.

The new document from NAS is their own independent assessment of the literature through to November 2013. Here they conclude that there is “sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity” in humans for nasopharyngeal cancer, sinonasal cancer and myeloid leukemia, and “convincing relevant information” that formaldehyde induces mechanistic events associated with the development of cancer.

These and other aspects lead the committee to conclude that “formaldehyde should be listed in the RoC [Report on Carcinogens] as “known to be a human carcinogen”.”.

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Is carbon tetrachloride still being emitted despite global ban?

Studies carried out by a team led by Qing Liang at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, USA, have suggested that the observed slow decline of the ozone-depleting carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane) can only be explained if it is still being emitted (see also this press release). This stands in contrast to the near-zero emissions estimate based on production and feedstock usage, a result of the regulations initiated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol.
Liang’s research, which is based on computer modelling of the concentration gradient between the northern and southern hemispheres, estimates that current unknown emissions are still about 30% of pre-treaty peak emissions. He says “it is now apparent there are either unidentified industrial leakages, large emissions from contaminated sites, or unknown CCl4 sources”.

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